Los Alamos County was created in 1949 from Sandoval and Santa Fe Counties. It's an extremely small county for this part of the country with only 109 sqare miles and no significant water sources. The county seat is Los Alamos, the only incorporated city. White Rock is an unincorporated community in the southeast portion of the county. Los Alamos County is the home of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the people who live here are largely employees of the lab and the local businesses that support those folks (such as gas stations, grocery stores, and recreational facilities). Overall it's a bit unique in its lack of historical information due to the top-secret classification of local records by the federal government and the military in 1942. Those records are now being declassified.
There are some county formation maps on the Guadalupe page along with several other very interesting maps.
Los Alamos, A City
A brief history of Los Alamos County
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